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Frequently Asked Questions

Acadience Reading

Q: Why is Retell a required part of ORF in Acadience Reading?
A: An in-depth response can be found in our position paper, Why is Retell a Required Part of ORF in Acadience Reading?
Q: Where do I find the benchmark goals for Acadience Reading?
A: The Acadience Reading benchmark goals are available from the Acadience Reading Benchmark Goals and Composite Score document.
Q: Where can I find technical adequacy information for the Acadience Reading measures?
A: Technical adequacy information for Acadience Reading can be found on our Publications and Presentations page.
Q: Why doesn't Letter Naming Fluency have benchmark goals?
A: LNF has always been used as an indicator of risk rather than an instructional target. This is also why progress monitoring materials are not provided for LNF. The Reading Composite Score includes LNF and provides the best indicator of risk. Since the risk indicator comes from the composite score and LNF does not assess an instructional target, there is no need for a benchmark goal for LNF.
Q: Is LNF a measure of Rapid Automated Naming (RAN)?
A: LNF is not a direct measure of RAN, although RAN is likely a component skill that contributes to fluency in letter naming once students know the names of the letters. Tasks that are direct measures of RAN differ from LNF in the following ways:
  • RAN tasks typically involve the timed naming of a small number of familiar items arranged in a grid with each of the familiar items repeated in random order. For example, a common RAN task contains five rows in which five items (letters, numbers, colors, shapes) are displayed in left-to-right serial fashion and repeated randomly in each row. In contrast, LNF uses all 26 upper-case and lower-case letters in a stratified-random order and assesses a student's knowledge of letter names as well as fluency in naming them.
  • RAN tests use items that are familiar to the student. On LNF, students may or may not know the name of some or all of the letters.
Q: Why doesn’t Acadience Reading contain a direct measure of RAN?
A: Although research supports a relationship between RAN and reading skill, the role of RAN and the nature of the relationship between RAN and reading is not well understood.

RAN is typically a good predictor of future reading difficulties, but difficulties with RAN do not impact reading skills as much as difficulties with phonological awareness (PA). When students have strong PA skills, but have difficulties with RAN, the impact on reading skills is typically milder than when students have difficulties with both RAN and PA.

We now offer a separate measure of RAN that is available to users of our Acadience Data Management service. For more information, click here.
Q: Why are the sixth grade benchmark goals lower than the fifth grade goals?
A: The difficulty level of the passages used for ORF and Maze changes by grade, so composite scores and benchmark goals can't be directly compared across grades. The difficulty level of the passages increases by grade in a roughly linear fashion. However, student performance increases in a curve, with the most growth occurring in the earlier grades, and slower growth in the upper grades. Between fifth and sixth grade, the difficulty level of the materials increases at a faster rate than student performance, so benchmark goals are lower in sixth grade than in fifth.
Q: Can Acadience Reading be used to help identify students with dyslexia?
A: Acadience Reading can be used as an effective tool for identifying students who are at risk for early reading difficulties, including dyslexia. Low skills on Acadience Reading followed by persistent lack of adequate progress, in spite of instruction that has been effective with other students with a similar level of initial skills, may provide evidence that a student is at risk for dyslexia.

However, please note that no single assessment can be used to specifically identify dyslexia. Instead, that is a decision made by a team of qualified professionals who may include test data as part of their decision-making process.

More information on dyslexia and Acadience Reading can be found in our position paper, Dyslexia Screening and the Use of Acadience Reading.


Q: Are the IDAPEL measures available for use?
A: IDAPEL is currently available as an early release measure. Ongoing research will allow us to continue development of the assessment and benchmark goals. If you are interested in using IDAPEL, email us at
Q: What is IDAPEL Essential Training?
A: The IDAPEL Essential training is available as a pre-recorded online training. The workshop is designed to provide an in-depth understanding of the conceptual and empirical foundations of IDAPEL as well as comprehensive practice in the administration and scoring of the measures. This practitioner model supports individuals using IDAPEL in their school or school district. If you are interested in registering for the IDAPEL Essential training, email us at
Q: How can I access the IDAPEL Materials?
A: After completing the IDAPEL Essential training you will get access to a site where you can download electronic copies of the IDAPEL materials for printing. We currently have IDAPEL materials available for grades K - 5, with progress monitoring materials available for some measures.
Q: Have the IDAPEL benchmark goals been established?
A: Preliminary benchmark goals are available for IDAPEL for kindergarten, first and second grade. We have conducted validation studies for IDAPEL with both native French speakers in eastern Canada and students learning French as a second-language in both eastern and western Canada. There are separate benchmark goals for each group of students.